Wilson, our hero, finds himself in the midst of a battle between a deposed queen and revolutionists who have banded together in an effort to bring their country together as a republic. Wilson, although torn between helping mercenaries, freedom fighters and revolutionaries, is more concerned with the rescuing of the girl he has fallen in love with, but who has been snatched from him by a mysterious priest. That, and the finding of the famed treasure of El Dorado rumored to have been buried beneath Lake Guadiva.
Introduction by Roger Melin. For further information, including links to online text, reader information, RSS feeds, CD cover or other formats if available , please go to the LibriVox catalog page for this recording. For more free audio books or to become a volunteer reader, visit LibriVox. The silk of their web is the strongest natural fibre known to man — how cool is that?!
If you take a few strands of silk from their web and twirl it into one strand with your fingers, it is very difficult to break. Currently being researched by Nasa the silk of the Golden Orb Spider could be used in all sorts of projects, even bridge building. So nowadays when I see a Golden Orb spider around the garden I get up close and have a look rather than rushing away.
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They are harmless and very relaxed so for those of you who like to get up close and personal with spiders, feel free. These sacs can contain from to eggs, depending on mating success and particular species. Nephila spiders change their body positioning relative to the sun to maintain internal temperatures at an optimal level. As ambient temperatures increase, the spiders position themselves so the abdomen shades the cephalothorax from the sun. Spiders may also hang from their hind legs as a result of the heat due to a loss of hydrostatic pressure.
Conversely, as temperatures cool down, the spiders position themselves perpendicular to the sun to retain as much heat energy as possible. Predation of Nephila species is relatively uncommon; when it does occur, the main group affected are the juvenile individuals. The major predators are birds, but wasps and damselflies also prey upon smaller juveniles. Nephila species are frequently parasitized by Argyrodes , a genus of very small black-and-silver spiders that are kleptoparasitic. As many as a few dozen may infest a single Nephila web to feed from the host spider's captured prey.
The Web of the Golden Spider from Project Gutenberg
The frequent rebuilding or abandoning of webs by Nephila may be a tactic for controlling Argyrodes. Spiny orb-weaver spiders of the genus Gasteracantha also inhabit the webs of Nephila as kleptoparasites. Egg sacs generally remain free from both predation and parasitism, often due to the close proximity of the mother and how well it is hidden.
Nephila spiderlings leave the egg sac as a result of environmental cues, often warmer and wetter conditions in spring. They then live on a communal web, eating dead siblings and web debris for around a week before dispersing to make individual webs. Young spiders do not generally build yellow-colored silk, and the young themselves can be easily mistaken for young orchard spiders Leucauge in general color and shape both genera sport silver stripes or patches on their abdomens, described in some references as a form of heat control.
The best distinction between Leucauge and Nephila juveniles is web structure: Leucauge species tend to build horizontal orbs that form a perfect circle, whereas Nephila species build vertical, elliptical orbs that are incomplete missing the portion of the orb over the hub, the center where the spider sits. The latter seem to prefer more open habitat such as second-growth scrub or forest edges.
golden silk spider
Fences or building overhangs often do just as nicely. Once they are juvenile, Nephila spiders inhabit their individual webs, then begin their growth by the molting process. The time between molts is called an instar and seven to 12 of these can occur depending on food availability.
Ecdysis , the shedding of the exoskeleton , occurs through the formation of a soft exoskeleton inside the current one. Once the old exoskeleton is shed, the new, larger one begins to harden. Ecdysis occurs when the spider's mass becomes too great for the current exoskeleton to support. When mating season arrives, both males and females stop molting and remain the same size for the remainder of their lives.
- McGill University 2012.
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The venom of the golden silk orb-weaver is effective in action on prey, but has not been reported to be of any notable consequence for humans if accidentally bitten. In the literature, Nephila is one of several genera where the venom "must be considered as more or less ineffectual in human beings". However, further studies of the venom components are needed to better understand pathways associated with any toxicity.
Nephila do not seem to form either beneficial or harmful relationships with humans. Females often construct their webs using human structures as a base for support strands due to their stability. Individuals are often found in urban and suburban environments due to the protection from predation and greater prey availability. Some nests near fruits may repel or destroy known pests, such as Tephritid fruit flies , without the need to use insecticides. Spiders may bite humans if provoked but more often flee if confronted. There have been several efforts in the past to produce garments from Nephila silk although none commercially viable.
Another possible use of Nephila silk lies in tissue engineering. A study from the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover reports that processed Nephila silk is an excellent scaffold material thanks to its biocompatibility, mechanical strengths, and its property to promote cell adhesion and proliferation.
Fishermen on the coasts of the Indo-Pacific ocean remove Nephila webs and form them into a ball, which is thrown into the water. There it unfolds and is used to catch bait fish.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genus of spiders. For the use in Aramaic culture, see Orion constellation. For the race mentioned in the Book of Genesis, see Nephilim. Fabricius, . Nephila Leach, ". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved Spiders of North America: An identification manual. American Arachnological Society.
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