SayIng aloud what you think or feel, in the legacy of de Sade, is not. In the Internet context it is not evil, as one of Rudiger Safranski's book tItles suggested, but, instead, triviality which is the "drama of freedom. What is freedom? We have a choice between buying one car or buying another car? This is the true shock. Did anyone order the development of blogs?
There is no possibility of simply ignoring blogs and living the comfortable lifestyle of a 20th century "public intellectual.
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The London Times noted that Houellebecq "writes from inside alienation. His bruised male heroes, neglected by their parents, cope by depriving themselves ofloving interactions; they project their coldness and loneliness on to the world. We can extract blogging philosophy from novelists such as Rainald Goetz, Irwine Welsh, Matias Faldbakken, or Brett Easton Ellis-or we may as well all become celebrities ourselves. That would be a blogging strategy.
Gutenberg fiction is no longer a common reference, but a special effect of the media industries, kept alive by an ever-increasing amount of film adaptations, awards, and, indeed, the Internet. Italian theorist Paulo Virno provides clues as to how we could use the term cynicism in a non-derogative manner. Virno sees cynicism connected to the "chronic instability of forms of life and linguistic games. Virno: But to experience rules directly means also to recognize their conventionality and groundlessness. Thus, one is no longer immersed in a predefined "game," participating therein with true allegiance.
Instead, one catches a glimpse of oneselfin individual "games" which are destitute of all seriousness and obviousness, having become nothing more than a place for immediate self-affirmation-a self-affirmation which is all the more brutal and arrogant, in short, cynical, the more it draws upon, without illusions but with perfect momentary allegiance, those same rules which characterize conventionality and mutability.
Is cynical media culture a critical practice? Thus far, it has not proven useful to interpret blogs as a new form of literary criticism. Such an undertaking is bound to fail. The "crisis of criticism" has been announced repeatedly and blog culture has simply ignored thiS dead-end street.
There is no need for a new media clone of Terry Eagleton. We live long after the Fall of Theory. Criticism has become a conservative and affirmative activity, in which the critic alternates the losses of value while celebrating the spectacle of the marketplace. It would be interesting to investigate why criticism itself has not become popular and aligned itself with a new media practice such as blogging, as cultural studies popularized everything except theory itself.
Insularity and provincialIsm have taken. One thing is sure: blogs do not shut down thought. A modern cynic typically has a highly contemptuous attItude towards social norms, especially those which serve more of a ritualistic purpose than a practical one, and will tend to dismiss a substantial proportion of popular beliefs, conventional morality and accepted wisdom as irrelevant or obsolete nonsense.
In a networked environment, such a definition becomes problematic as It portrays the user as an isolated subject opposed to groups or society as a whole. To talk about evIl as an abstract category is irrelevant in this context. The idea is not to create a dialectical SItuation. Shtened false consciousness. Stefan Lorenz Sorgner summarizes Sloterdijk: We live from day to day, from vacation to vacation, from news show to.
We would still like to see a lot of the world and in general "to live a whole lot more. On July 14, , iMomus posted a long list of what "moronic cynicism" could be.
This email was the start of Peretti's viral career
I made the following remix of his theory-proposal: Moronic cynicism is a form of naIvete turned inside out, naIvete with a sneer. Imagine a child smoking a cigarette. Passive aggression, self-destructiveness and negative capability are close cousins to moronic cynicism. The moronic cyniC uses cynicism as a way to prepare for the worst. The worst consequently arrives. To be cynical is to be on the side of the worst, to think with its logic and to see with its eyes. Moronic cynicism is attacking both the consumers and the companies that supply their needs.
Moronic cynicism is seeing the entire people, government and institutions of a nation as possessing some kind of "original sin. Moronic cynicism is the narcissistic mindset of an individual in a fragmented culture where all individuals resemble one another, and everybody is secretly miserable. Moronic cynicism is thinking that "empowerment" is acting on your own behalf rather than on the behalf of others.
Moronic cynicism wonders why the phone never rings. Moronic cynic, you will become the monster you claim to fight! Let's investigate the optimistic side. David Weinberger, co-author of The CZuetrain Manifesto, speaks of the "virtue of engineering cynicism, which comes out of, and is reflected in, the engineer's daily work experience. Weinberger: "Cynics believe that there is an ideal that humans choose not to live up to.
For engineers, the ideals often are those of rationality: they like their work relationships characterized by the exchange of objective information unsullied by subjective, selfish motivations. The cynic responds positively to the straightforward truth. Despite what the horrified sales folk. Long lIve the cynical optimist. We are? Each new blog is supposed to add to the fall of the medIa system that once dominated the 20th century. This process is not one? The erosion of the mass media cannot be traced easIly m figures of stagnant sales and the declining readership of newspapers.
What IS declining is the "Belief in the Message. The printed and broadcasted message has lost ItS aura. News IS consumed as a commodity with entertainment value. We seldom find passion except for the act of bloggmg Itself. Often blogs unveil doubts and insecurity about what to feel, wh. This stylized uncertainty CIrcles. Blogging is a nihilistic venture precisely because the 0:vne:shIp structure of mass media is questioned and then attacked.
Implosion is not the right word. Blogging is the opposite of ;'he spectacle. Instead ofcomplaining and arguing, the blogger puts hIm or herself m the perversely pleasurable position of media observer. In an interview with Brandan W. Joseph, Paulo Virno makes the connection between nihilism and the contemporary work conditions outside of the factory, known as post-Fordism. Virno: atmosphere ofblogs. Mixing public and private is constitutional here. What blogs play with is the emotional register, varying from hate to boredom, passionate engagement, sexual outrage, and back to everyday boredom.
Open-Armed Resistance Having learned a lesson or two from the cultivated madness of the dotcom era, the management book writers David Kline and Dan Burnstein have become cautious about promoting yet another hype labeled Web 2. In Blog! The same could be said about the hype surrounding blogs. Everything that has been written about blogs changing the media landscape is right, so Kline and Burnstein believe; the only mistake bloggers could make is to think that change will happen overnight. These patient revolutionaries refrain from a thorough deconstruction of blog architecture.
In their thinking, blogs are a given and neither ontology nor appearance need discussion. The impact on society is measured in the form of a kaleidoscope of microscopic yet significant opinions within the U. Stating the obvious, Kline and Burstein see blogs as late materializations of s promises. It is the killer application of our times, much like e-mail and instant messaging were ten years ago.
While blogs coexist with other media, Kline and Burnstein predict increasing cross-fertilization. Blogging is neither a project nor a proposal but rather a condition whose existence one must first fully recognize. It is today's a priori. Australian cultural theorist Justin Clemens explains: "Nihilism is not just another epoch amongst a succession of others: it is the finally accomplished form of a disaster that happened a long time ago. They zero out old structure but do not claim to be its predecessor.
Users are tired of top-down communication and yet have nowhere else to go. All this is at the base of post-Fordist "flexibility. Great European thought, from Nietzsche to Heidegger, described the 'nihilism' that characterizes forms oflife outside of the stringent rationality of the productive process: instability, disenchantment, anonymity, and so on. To work profitably today m offices and factories, it is necessary to have a great familiarity with the situation and the fragility of all states of things.
The commenting on mainstream culture, its values and products, should be read as an open withdrawal of attention.
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The eyeballs that once patiently. According to the UtopIan blog phIlosophy, mass media are doomed. Their role will be taken over by participatory media. The terminal diagnosis has been made and it states: closed top-down organizations no longer work, knowledge cannot be managed, and today's work is collaborative and networked. However, despite continuous warning signs the system continues to successfully dys function. Is top-down really on its way out? And it is this state of ongomg affaIrs that causes nihilism, not revolution, to occur.
As Justin Clemens rightly states "Nihilism often goes unremarked, not because it is no longer an issue of contemporary philosophy and theory, "Another world is possible. It is not correct to judge blogs merely on the basis of their content. The reason for this could be the "banalization of nihilism. This might have changed with the rise of writers such as Michel Houellebecq. Andre Gluckmann explained the migrant riots in the French suburbs as a "response to French nihilism. To historicize the concept is one way out, though I will leave that to others. Another way could be to occupy the term and reload it with surprising energies: creative nihilism.
French orientalist Burnouf, who coined the term nihilism, merely used it to point at the philosophical concept of nirvana, in this context, a state of supreme liberation, being no longer attached to Big Media. It was Turgenev who gave the term its negative meaning of terrorism and intellectual radicalism. To clarify, not everyone has moved to the blogosphere. In a posting to the German Rohrpost list, Berlin-based new media theorist Florian Cramer asks why the e-mail-based mailing list culture did not transform into blogs.
Unlike lists, the rule for blogs is to be subjective, individual, and private. One has to follow the dictates of subjectivity. Cramer sees a shift away from the discursive exchange between list subscribers toward a formal and technical way of networking through RSS and backtrack links. Instead of comments arriving as separate, equal e-mails, comments on blogs are treated as secondary pages, with smaller fonts.
Cramer also points at a cultural difference between lists and blogs; where lists are often international and tolerant of imperfect English, blogs are more often written in the native language of the owner and are seen as products of a subjective literary style, not as vehicles for international commerce and trade. According to Cramer blogs reflect a "cocooning" tendency in society, in which the blogosphere has to be interpreted as a "monad" as Leibniz described it , a closed and self-referential environment in which ranking and linking to other blogs becomes more important than page views.
What makes Cramer's notes worth mentioning is the fact that the common body of literature on blogs does not deal with any of the mentioned concepts or ideas. The original posting of the blog owner is not equal to the answer of respondents. Users are guests, not equal partners, let alone antagonists. And, as noted earlier, most blogs are written in the writer's native language German, Parsi, Mandarin, and the like.
People who post on blogs can't commandeer the time of others, says Reynolds. Nobody will read list postings except voluntarily. Blogs, says Reynolds, make it much easier to "route around idiots" as they are interlinked discussion forums, not One list. But inevitably the community of users starts getting III fights over every little thing, so this time I just decided to call my Web site Joi Ito's Web.
It's not necessarily a vanity thing, but more so I can say, 'You can do what you want but you're in my liVing room, so be respectful because I have to take care of this place. I am happy to have people come but it really is kind of like a party in my liVing room". It is clear that blogs can perfectly direct and monitor discussions and filter out dissident voices. You will hardly find a critical voice on Ito's site. Blogs create communities oflike-minded people. Debates happen within homogeneous Weblog clouds. The management of comments is deadly simple.
Exclusion of dissent is no longer necessary, as adversaries will not post on each other's blogs. At best, they quote and link. Most bloggers would admit that it is not their aim to foster public debate. If you disagree with a fellow blogger, it is even unwise to write a comment.
The chance that someone lIke Ito might respond to it is almost zero. Herein is the limit ofblogging. Many blogs completely switch off the possibility of response, in particular the celebrity diaries and CEO blogs written and maintained by professional editors. Cramer also points to the close relation between the spread of ADSL broadband technology and blogging. The "always on" condition provokes an online writing style that feeds off surfing. Cramer discusses the social shift away from shared access spaces, both in the cultural sector and business, toward solitary work at home.
It also reflects the e-mail-based mailing list versus blog dynamic: the list as many to many, the blog as one to many. In the case of blogs you consciously have to go there in particular, the first visit , whereas list traffic comes to you. The I. I'm too cynical to believe in nihilism They are the nothingists who celebrate the death of the centrahzed meaning structures and ignore the accusation that they would only produce noise.
We're faced with an "accomplished nihilism" in that bloggers have 62 understood that the fulfillment of nihilism is a fact. In media terms, we see this attitude translated into a growing distrust of the output oflarge commercial news organizations and the endless spin provided by politicians and their advisers. Questioning the message is no longer a subversive act of an engaged citizenry but an a priori attitude, even before the TV or PC has been switched on.
NIhIlism I. S not a monolithic belief system. We no longer "believe" in Nothing, as m 19th century Russia or post-war Paris. Nihilism is no longer a danger or problem, but the default postmodern condition. Blogs are neither religious nor secular. They are postvirtue. The paradoxical temporality of nihilism today is that of a notquite-already-Now. In the media context, this would be the moment when mass media lost their claim on the truth and could no longer speak as the voice of authority. Let us not specifically date this event in time, as such an insightful moment can be both personal and cultural-historical.
It is the shift from the festive McLuhan to the nihilist Baudrillard that every media user is going through, found in the ungroundedness of networked discourse that users fool around with. Translating Carr's insight to today's condition, we could say that the blogger is an individual "who lives in self-conscious confrontation with a meaningless world, refusing either to deny or succumb to its power. Blogging does not grow out of boredom, or emanate from some existential void. Carr rightly remarks "for many postmodernists, the presence of nihilism evokes not terror but a yawn.
If bloggers are classified nihilists, it merely means that they have stopped believing in the media. The so-called global always-on, always-linked, always-immediate public conversation speeds up the fragmentation of the media landscape. Kline and Burnstein disagree here they ain't no nihilists. As every hype necessarily has to crash, the wave of negative PR is pre-programmed. Bloggers might communicate what issues people tell the media they want to think about. But once the hotness has worn off, who cares?
The nihilism starts there, after the fall of the blogs, the stolen laptop, crashed server, unreadable back-up files, disappeared online service provider, comments 0. That is when we can truly show off our Pathos des Umsonst, the gesture of Being in Vain. David Kline writes, "Not everyone is pleased that the untrained rabble now dares to speak in public. They encourage polarization and extremism rather than debate and understanding. They turn on snark and mockery more often than facts and agile argument. A blog IS grea: at posting new stuff.
But it's not great factoring in and workmg together wIth people on a single idea or project. The point is not to scale-up to televIsIOn levels but to set off avalanches. Trippi is still ecstatic: This was nothing less than the first shot in America's second revolution, nothing less than the people taking the first step to reclaiming a system that had long ago forgotten they existed.
It won't stop at remaking politics. And it won't pay attention to national borders. A new self that needs to contain less and l;ss of an inner repertory of dense cultural inheritance-as we all become pancake people'-spread wide and thin as we connect with that vast network of information accessed by the mere touch of a button. It is an old complaint: we no longer need the knowledge, a Imk wIll do. Jason Calacanis: "I always loved the 'unplugged' acoustics and live sets at rock shows.
Like going to Carnegie Hall. You know, you can see an orchestra, or you can see Bob Dylan on the stage with just a guitar, harmonica, and his soul-no major production, you just focus on the music. To me blogs are like that, less produced, more soulful-more real. For one of these I turn to Iran, a country that since has seen an incredible surge in blogs and blogging. Blogging has become so prominent that it is no longer considered marginal. Whereas the West is tired of so-called "virtual" identities, in countries like Iran there is an abundance of fake identities.
Anonymity has been a crucial precondition for what Masserat Amir Ebrahimi calls the "indigenization of cyberspace. In an essay in Pages magazine entitled "Emergence of the Iranian Cyberspace and the Production of the Selfin Weblogestan" Ebrahimi argues that blog software facilitates indigenization because it "creates social environments where the presence of different thoughts and mentalities form a space similar to their real living spaces.
Weblogs become private homes situated in 'the global city' of the Internet and give a familiar taste to cyberspace. This process of appropriation is not created within the context of a public sphere, which, in the case of Iran and many other countries, is heavily guarded, but instead situates itselfin a quasi-safe, protected zone, "for Iranian youth that want to preserve their freedom.
The failure to learn a language, in this case English, can cause a group to act as if they live within a ghetto or closed society. According to Ebrahimi, many Iranians engage in "Web-wandering" surfing , looking at pictures, while restricting themselves to conversations with their fellowcountrymen. I would add here that such closure is further facilitated, and not discouraged, by the inward looking monad architecture of blogs. The role ofblogs in Iranian society, says Ebrahimi, is to define people's identity.
In many objections, petitions or communications these people sign with their own Weblog names because their real names have no particular authority. In blogosphere, these people go public while still hiding their "real" identity. Whereas the virtual world is a reaction to the "musts" and "must-nots" of a society that is still confused in its behavior and dispositions in the physical world, it is still considered a mirror. And: One looks for one's selves, even in others' Weblogs. Whereas the mirror might be a poetic leitmotiv, Annabelle Sreberny writes, in the same issue of the Pages magazine, that the danger is "in an environment of instant access, when people are ready both to say anything and to do anything, the scope for delusion, rumor and rapid, violent response is high.
From the perspective of Internet security, it is questionable how safe anonymous blogging in Iran really is. In that sense, it is not centralized in the same way Internet traffic is managed in China, so any surveillance would have to occur at an ISP level. Given the amount of traffic and the lack of centralization, comprehensive monitoring of all traffic simply is not feasible in the case of Iran. However, if someone is already suspected or targeted, or if the authorities want to begin monitoring traffic between a limited number of IP addresses, then it is definitely possible to monitor and capture all Internet communications for these limited targets.
In practice, there is little true anonymity in the blogosphere. This is largely due to a lack of information on how to secure online communications and because additional layers of security cause inconveniences that most users are unwilling to endure. These security facts make the massive role-playing in the case of the Iranian blogs an all the more interesting phenomenon.
A Spivakian mantra springs to mind: Can the subaltern blog? The question seems both absurd and serious. Why would the world's marginal, excluded poor even know about blogs? Don't they have more urgent matters on their mind? Perhaps the subaltern would rather gather under a tree or use SMS on their cell phones? Perhaps they never :Vill not. Most likely they don't blog m English. Perhaps they understand the security risks? Of course, people would have to learn to read and write first.
The next steps to use a computer and blog are minor steps compared to more immediate issues such as housing, water, electricity, and education. Japanese rave theorist and! He or she then enters the side which can speak about the subaltern. Though for the most part not professional wnters, bloggers are often eloquent in the way that those who are not self-consciously polished often are-raw, uncensored, and energized by the sound. With Dominic Pettman we could say that bloggmg IS a relentless pursuit in the age of exhaustion.
For some, nihilism kicks in when they realize that media freedom is undermining the very notion of listening. Liberal evangelist Carl Trueman notes that the whole blog phenomenon is "inherently ridiculous. The more serious it tries to be, the more absurd and pompous it becomes. I've recently started a blog of my own at blogspot. I'll put up a reciprocal link. Claire E. Write advises writers who blog to not offer a P? Most bloggers don t follow that line of thinking and believe that reader comments turn a blog int. The essence of a blog is not the interactivity of the medIUm: It IS the sharing of the thoughts and opinions of the blogger.
Isn't it interesting that bloggmg services offer the possibility to switch off comments? You then neither have to deal with the " 0 comments" nor with the hundreds of spam messages and the occasional annoying responses. Blogs are not even primarily a form of individual expression.
Consequently, could we qualify blogs as groupware? Back in , groupware was defined by Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz as "intentional group processes plus software to support them. He called it :'social s. Whether blogs really foster thIS socIal mteraction should remain an open question.
Most likely the social aspect of blogs will be phased out and developed elsewhere into other products, leaving the blogs to perform the introspective duty ofthe online diary. High traffic blogs will have to be generated from added functionalities that are being thrown onto the market on a daily basis, from Attention Trust Approved icons, scuttle, search this blog, furl archive, tag cloud, and skypecard to Poll of the Week, XML, podroll, and swikis.
Blog pages are starting to look like the baroque e-commerce portals of the lates-a bad omen. Are bloggers nsk-takers? Of course blog culture is different from the entrepreneurial risk cult embodied by management gurus such as Tom Peters. Much like Ulrich Beck defined risk, bloggers deal with hazards and insecurities induced by never-ending waves of modernization.
What is blogged is the relentless uncertainty of the everyday. Whereas entrepreneurs colonize the future, energized by collective hallucinations, bloggers expose th:,. Blogging is the answer to mdividuahzation of social inequality. This is the network paradox; there is simultaneous construction and destruction of the social at hand. The timid internalization ends and transforms into radical revelation. No Web site anticipated this practice better than the FuckedCompany.
Bloggers disrupt the dIsrupters. They override the constant talk about change. It is remarkably easy to attack the post-modern corporation as it solely depends on a hollow public image, developed by third-party consultants. Online diaries, rants, and comments so easily defy the manufactured harmony at which community engineering aims. In Democracy Matters, Cornel West writes "the problems plaguing our democracy are not only ones of disaffection and disillusionment. He sees the greatest threat coming from three dogmas: 1 free-market fundamentalism, 2 aggressive militarism, and 3 escalating authoritarianism.
This has severely narrowed political dialogue. West: "The problem is not the vociferous shouting from one camp to the other; rather it is that we h. We are losing the very value of dialogue-espeCially respectful communication-in the name of the sheer voice of naked power. The danger ofblogs, says West, is that "some go too far into crude advocacy the other way. With the exception of the happy few A-list blogs, most sites either have "no comments" or closed down the possibility of responding altogether.
The "other" is garbage. A good many of the blog operators seem to agree. Democracy Matters has a chapter called "Nihilism in America". It pays simplistic lip service to issues rather than portraying their complexity. How many of the postings, we can ask with West, are SocratlC questioning? Why is the blogosphere so obsessed with measuring, counting, and feeding, and so dismissive of rhetoric, aesthetics, and ethics? Let's not end with moral questions.
The wish to overcome nihilism goes back to Nietzsche and is also relevant in the context ofblogging. How to overcome meaninglessness without falling back into centralized meaning structures is the challenge that the blogging millions are posing. It is interesting to see how West refers to Weblogs.
In the chapter "The Necessary Engagement with Youth Culture," West paints a somber picture of personal depression and loneliness that fuel "media-influenced modes of escapism. ThIS disgraceful numbing of the senses, dulling the mind, and confining to an eternal present-with a lack of connection to the past and no vision for a different future-is an insidious form of soul murder. Hip hop, praised by West as the solution, is judged by others as the ultimate form of macho cynicism.
Thus, a guide to navigate such contradictions within cultural forms is needed. West concludes: "We need a bloodstained Socratic love and tear-soaked prophetic love fueled by a hard-won tragicomic hope. Blog content IS usually emotional in some way, supportive and often melodramatic, but that cannot be said of the techno-networking act itself. The prophetic has been corrupted to such an extent that it will take time before all traces of dotcom market fundamentalism have been overcome.
No more gurus anymore? That will be hard to accomplish given the current celebrity-driven culture that is so deeply inscribed in our habitus. The world of blogs makes no difference here. But the scale and the depth of visionary nonsense certainly have. Blogs do not tell the story of freedom in the free software sense. Free software guru Richard Stallman's worthy but repetitive insistence on freedom to change code is irrelevant in the blog context because users have been given the option ofnot haVing to deal with html code so that they could finally focus on content creation and social networking.
At the heart of the success of blogs lies its automated but not necessarily proprietary software. Users have been reasonably happy with the limitations ofblogs. Stallman's freedom is only relevant for a tiny yet crucial workforce of software programmers that have the skills, time, and desire to write-and change-code.
Blogito Ergo Sum So what form of post blogging cannot be extinguished or snuffed out? Blogging is already seductive and contagious; what it needs is positive examples to lead us away from the news spectacle so that it can position itself with a style of its own. The quest for insurgent software is on the table again. Where user desires lie when it comes to preferred ways of contacting, collaborating, and sharing needs to be studied before code hacking proceeds.
How can a networked" democratic indiViduality" come into being if we want to avoid talking about communities and collective identities? How can software weave what the network demands? The act ofposting is constitutional in blogging. If we blog, we post. The philosophy of the blog posting could start with the difference between post and posting. Chris Garrett: Answer this, what is the basic unit of blogging?
Table of contents
The blog post. Each post is like an individual worker in your workforce. Some posts might work harder than others. Some attract more attention than others. Each earns you a little revenue, together they are your means of gaining income. So common sense point number one; it makes sense that if you grow your work force, your body of work within your blog, that your income potential will grow. The epistemological apriori here is the posting. In the process, we alter what is the case with our musings.
Blogs arise in an environment in which useless bickering has become the rule and entropy has reached maximum levels. In that sense, the Shannon distinction between noise and signal has lost its critical significance as a metaphor because everything can be classified as noise. For machines, the signal-to-noise ratio is evident and is dealt with by utilizing increasingly fine filters.
What is significant for me is nonsense for you. This is the problem of meaningful search engines as much as surfable classification systems for the blogosphere that are neither based on popularity nor personal preferences such as RSS feeds. The question is no longer, as Shannon put it, how to communicate in the presence of noise. In the act of data creation we have become fully aware of its noise status. The fact that producing information according to Flusser means generating difference is not changing this techno-existential given. The question is no longer whether humans and their "redundant languages" are inferior to machine code we are , but whether that code is open or closed and is stored and analyzed by states and corporations for security and commercial reasons.
The Internet is full of relays, with traffic carefully monitored and filtered by humans, mind you; think ofthe 50, Chinese employed to filter, monitor, and censor the Chinese Internet. We may send fewer and fewer letters, but we're still posting. This also goes for blogs.
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What seems to be a standard yet customized, user-friendly medium turns out to be unreliable if you are at it over a longer period of time. Blogs that have been untouched for three months are wiped from the server. New York media theorist Alex Havias writes, "many Web! These local a. Nobody is above the law," said Fu, who is the deputy permanent representative to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organizations in Switzerland.
The diplomat called out rampant prison abuse in the United Staets, especially in the Guantanamo facility, while deploring widespread gun violence and deep-rooted racism prevalent in the country. Fu also called out large-scale eavesdropping carried out by U. Referring to the issue of "comfort women" during WWII, Fu said: "We advise the United States and Japan to deeply reflect on themselves rather than interfere in the internal affairs of other states in the pretext of human rights.
Xi Jinping, general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, on Sunday highlighted theoretical and technological innovation as the key to upgrade the country's military and national defense. Speaking to national lawmakers from the military at the ongoing annual parliamentary session, Xi, also Chinese president and chairman of the Central Military Commission, said the future of the People's Liberation Army PLA hinged on innovation and reform.
He urged the armed forces to fully implement the innovation-driven development strategy, place combat capacity at the center of all their work, and step up theoretical and technological innovation. Military administration and personnel competence were also identified as areas to be improved. The PLA should focus on priority areas in order to kickstart across-the-board innovation and make the military stronger, Xi said. He told PLA lawmakers that the 13th Five-Year Plan period is crucial to China 's national defense and military development, and urged the armed forces to uphold political integrity, reform and rule of law, and strengthen their military buildup and combat readiness.
Earlier this month, China announced its lowest defense budget increase in six years in the wake of rising economic headwinds. According to a budget report given to the national legislature annual session, the government plans to raise the defense budget by 7. The increase last year was Xi noted that innovation was core to the competitiveness of the armed forces and would accelerate combat capacity. He urged officers to support, promote and navigate innovation, to enhance the quality, efficiency and sustainability of national defense and military development.
In particular, Xi demanded a "military theory that is up-to-date, pioneering and unique" to support its strong and dynamic armed forces. Greater efforts must be made to promote the evolution of Marxist military theory, he said. A strong army must have a sound theory as its guide," Xi said. He urged military academics to link theoretical research with military practice.
Meanwhile, the armed forces should work to turn cutting-edge military technology into real combat capacity, Xi said, adding that the armed forces must value the role of technology and push research in this regard. A preemptive attitude toward military affairs is needed, and the military should establish "unique advantages in some key fields," he said.
Xi said military management with a systematic approach would help with combat capacity, and called for the review and improvement of management concepts, systems and procedures. The military must strive to be more professional and methodical as this will elevate quality and efficiency across the board, Xi said. He went on to call for more support of talented individuals, who would contribute to the upgrade of systems and policies that would advance military reform and innovation.
The president also urged all military officers and soldiers to jointly contribute to the building of a strong army. Innovation in the military should be included in the state innovation framework while military-civilian coordination in innovation should also be supported, Xi said.
A new system conducive to modern defense technology advances shall be set up, he said. In addition, he urged both central and local authorities to support national defense and military construction, as well as the maintaining of the military's combat readiness. President Xi Jinping 's insights on China 's political and economic development, dubbed "Xi political economics," have reverberated through the Great Hall of the People throughout the yearly key political events.
Following Marxist political economics, Xi political economics has developed to reflect China 's specific conditions and development practice, Hu Angang, a professor at Tsinghua University , wrote in an opinion piece published by the People's Forum magazine. Continuing Marxism's emphasis on the people, Xi said the people are always at the center of his strategies. Poverty reduction, an inherent task in the process, has been flagged by Xi as one top priority for the years to come.
Underscoring Xi's unwavering attention to poverty reduction, he raised the topic on occasions when engaging with NPC deputies who represent China 's ethnic minorities. It is imperative that China eradicate the poverty weighing down ethnic minorities, peasants and herdsmen, he said.
For that to happen, a healthy, sustainable development of economy is a basic requirement. In Xi political economics, socialism is the institutional guarantee for all Chinese people to gain from economic development, and policies that benefit both the private and state-owned enterprises should be promoted.
He continued that the protection of the rights and interests of all kinds of ownership will stimulate vitality and creativity. Going forward, China 's economic growth philosophy will be driven by innovation, coordination, green development, openness and sharing, Xi emphasized on three occasions with NPC deputies from the financial and services hub of Shanghai , the resources-rich industrial base of Heilongjiang and the less-developed ecological habitat of Qinghai. The government's role, as in Xi's philosophy, is "smart," while the market is "decisive.
A balanced understanding of the "new normal," which according to Xi will pose both a challenge and an opportunity to China 's economy, will lay the foundation for future economic development, he said. To grow the economy, which has already been the world's second largest, requires not only informed confidence, but also targeted measures that respond to the economic reality. Supply-side structural reform, which will help reduce ineffective and low-end supply of goods and services, was on Xi's mind.
After an NPC deputy from Hunan Province raised the subject, Xi acknowledged it would be a "tough battle" but the one he vows to win. China 's economic miracle started decades ago with two major policies, the reform and opening up. While he continues to push forward reform, Xi understands the power that the opening up policy wields. Science and technology associations in China should better serve science workers, the national strategy of innovation-driven development as well as the government and the general public through reforms, according to a document published Sunday.
The document urged science and technology associations to uphold CPC's leadership in the reforms, and called on those associations to build closer links with science workers and the general public, and also called for better management of societies and administrative organs under the associations. The plan proposed to recruit science and technology associations in major enterprises and universities as group members of China Association for Science and Technology CAST , and encouraged societies of related disciplines to form coalitions as a way of sharing information and resources among the members.
It also introduced measures targeting improved public services offered by science and technology associations, including organizing academic activities and promoting commercialization of scientific research findings. The rectification of vote-value disparities between single-seat constituencies must be given priority in carrying out reform of the electoral system for the House of Representatives.
Legislative steps must be taken for that purpose during the current Diet session after quickly consolidating the opinions of political parties. The ruling and opposition parties have presented their views on electoral system reforms to lower house Speaker Tadamori Oshima. The Democratic Party of Japan, Komeito and the Japan Innovation Party have basically accepted the reform proposals recommended by an expert research panel.
The Liberal Democratic Party, on the other hand, has agreed to cuts in the number of total seats but wants to postpone the reallocation of seats to prefectures. The number of seats in proportional representation blocs would be cut by four. The LDP is studying a plan to cut one seat each in six prefectures, including Kagoshima and Iwate, without increasing seats in other prefectures. The plan also calls for a reallocation of seats to prefectures based on the census to be taken in , leaving the impression that this is a stopgap measure.
This will reduce the maximum vote-value gap between prefectures to 1. It is desirable to revise the electoral system, the foundation of democracy, with the approval of as many parties as possible. Abe has suggested he will aim to pass related bills through the current Diet session. As an overwhelmingly dominant force in the Diet, the LDP has the responsibility to lead consensus-building efforts on the reform. It is disappointing, however, that major parties still hold on to the idea of cutting the total seat number. If the seat number is reduced, diverse public opinions may not be reflected in elections.
The number of Japanese lawmakers in relation to the national population is no greater than in some European countries and elsewhere. It must be taken into consideration that if the number of total seats is reduced, it will become more difficult and troublesome to correct vote disparities.
When lawmakers are asked to accept reforms that are painful to themselves, they should do it by agreeing to cuts in subsidies to political parties rather than by decreasing seat numbers. Through the union, the DPJ and the JIP, which have a total of about lawmakers, hope to accelerate efforts to combine forces in the opposition camp to counter the administration of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, also leader of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.
The new party is also expected to promote cooperation with the Japanese Communist Party, among other opposition parties, for the election for the House of Councillors in summer. The council will hold its first meeting Tuesday. A subgroup for deciding the name of the new party and another for setting its policy platform will be formed under the council. To pick a new leader, the new party will hold an internal election as early as possible after the upper house election. The envisioned bill would revise the Public Offices Election Law and other relevant laws.
The LDP aims to submit the bill during the current Diet session to reform House of Representatives elections by reviewing how lower house seats are allocated to each prefecture. Each political party has its own interpretation. I will respect that report. The other proposal was that the demarcation of constituencies be adjusted to address vote-value disparities of 2 to 1 or more identified in the simplified national censuses conducted in between large-scale censuses. The report proposes that reviews of seat allocation numbers be made every 10 years, based on the reasoning that frequent changes will confuse voters.
Political parties have their own views, however, regarding the timing of fundamental reforms. The LDP believes that since the national census was a simplified census, there is no need at present to carry out fundamental reforms to decide on the rules of lower house seat allocations. Preliminary figures for the census were released Friday. But the law does not currently stipulate any rules for the distribution of lower house seats to each prefecture after a reduction in the total number of seats. The LDP has therefore proposed a zero-increase, six-reduction scheme in which one lower house seat will be cut in each of six prefectures.
Other parties like Komeito, the DPJ and the JIP are placing more importance on quickly correcting the number of seats allocated, an action demanded by the Supreme Court. The DPJ and the JIP proposed adding a total of seven seats in some prefectures and eliminating a total of 13 seats in others. They also would make vote-value disparities less than 2 to 1 by rezoning constituencies based on the outcome of the national census. In this case, nine seats would be added in some prefectures and 15 cut in others. The LDP does not have a sole majority in the House of Councillors, so the party wants to find a compromise with Komeito.
It wants to compile a coalition draft and pass the bill during the current Diet session. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will convene an advisory panel to consider an extra budget for the coming fiscal year, sources told Reuters, days after the Group of 20 nations urged more fiscal spending to support the ailing global economy. Abe announced the plan on Tuesday, saying the panel would help him prepare for hosting a Group of Seven summit in May where the fragile state of global growth is sure to top the agenda.
We need to debate how G7 countries can cooperate. Timing was not yet clear on an extra package, he said, though ruling party heavyweight Toshihiro Nikai has said he suspected it was being prepared ahead of elections expected in July. Abe advisor Masahiko Shibayama has also said the next package could include spending on childcare and elderly care to reduce the burden on the working population. Economists are building extra spending into their forecasts. This time the size of the tax increase is smaller, and the government has already agreed to exempt food and other everyday goods, but politicians are worried.
Top government spokesman Yoshihide Suga said taxes should not be raised if it caused revenue to fall, suggesting a delay is possible. A 2 percentage-point sales tax hike will cost consumers around 5 trillion yen, so government needs to spend 5 to 10 trillion yen to keep consumption on track, economists say. Tax revenue is closely correlated with nominal gross domestic product growth, and on that measure Japan is set for a windfall, economists say.
Last calendar year, nominal GDP expanded at the fastest pace since , when comparable data first became available. Fiscal doves argue that weakness in the world economy justifies it and bond markets are immune to ratings agencies while the BOJ is pumping out money by quantitative easing. At a weekend summit, the G20 sided with the doves by calling for more fiscal spending and less reliance on monetary policy to help the fragile global economy, which some investors say has reached its limit after years of quantitative easing and negative real interest rates.
It is also hastily mapping out measures to cope with the issue of children on waiting lists for nursery schools, which is currently embroiled in controversy triggered by an anonymous blog post. We want to deal with the issue with keen awareness, such as securing employees for these facilities by improving their working conditions. About people participated in the fourth and final event on Saturday. The government and the ruling parties intend to discuss policies in earnest that will be included in the plan.
Abe expressed his desire to realize equal pay for equal work, a concept in which individuals doing the same kind of work should receive the same pay regardless of whether they are regular or non-regular workers. Abe intends to establish that principle as a pillar of the plan. The largest opposition Democratic Party of Japan has made the income disparity issue a point of contention in the upper house election.
Japan must die. The government has started to devise the measures under the leadership of Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Koichi Hagiuda. The government intends to come up with the measures by the end of April, before the plan is officially formulated in May. The LDP and coalition partner Komeito each plan to set up a project team and propose measures to the government. The bus-only lanes on the roads of central Seoul may soon also be found in Cebu, the Philippines. A traffic road show to promote Korea 's intelligent transportation systems ITS was held in Indonesia and the Philippines from March 7 to Both countries have been working on developing better public transportation systems and infrastructure, trying to solve problems with urban traffic congestion.
Korea 's transportation systems and policies are being considered, while a number of business meetings have also taken place alongside the road show. Intelligent transportation systems ITS feature smart transportation infrastructure or systems that collect transportation data and disperse traffic accordingly, hence mitigating and lessening congestions and improving traffic flow. A single transportation transit card that covers all public transportation, including taxis, electronic payment of expressway tolls and real-time information for bus passengers -- all aspects of the transportation system that are familiar to residents and visitors in Seoul -- are part of the ITS.
Indonesia struggles with urban traffic congestion caused by rapid urbanization. The nation is considering traffic centers for traffic management and the development of bus rapid transit BRT systems in about 30 cities nationwide. It is also working on developing a roadmap for expressways and adopting electronic expressway toll payment systems.
The Philippines is also considering the adoption of transportation transit cards and BRT systems, along with traffic centers.
Some Korean companies are already participating in the development of traffic signal systems in Manila and in the BRT project in Cebu. The meeting was attended by about 20 businesspeople and experts from the artificial intelligence and software sectors. It's ranked sixth in the world on an absolute scale, but it's just one third of that of the U. Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen has disclosed the names of ministers who will be either removed or reshuffled in a parliamentary vote of confidence on April 4, according to his letter released to the media on Friday.
In his Wednesday letter sent to National Assembly President Heng Samrin, the prime minister requested Samrin to hold a parliamentary vote of confidence for his cabinet reshuffle. According to the letter, Hor Namhong, at his request, will be terminated from his position as the minister of foreign affairs, but he is still holding the position of a deputy prime minister. Current minister of posts and telecoms Prak Sokhonn will be appointed as the minister of foreign affairs, while transport minister Tram Ivtek will become the minister of posts and telecoms.
Commerce minister Sun Chanthol will be assumed as transport minister, as commerce secretary of state Pan Sorasak will be appointed as commerce minister. Water resources and meteorology secretary of state Veng Sakhon will become the minister of agriculture, replacing Ouk Rabun who will be appointed as the minister of rural development.
Current minister of rural development Chea Sophara will be assumed as the minister of land management, urban planning and construction, replacing outgoing minister Im Chhun Lim. Current minister of cults and religion Min Khin will be removed and substituted by former culture minister Him Chhem. Also, Keat Chhon will be terminated from his position as the permanent deputy prime minister at his request.
Hun Sen said Thursday that the cabinet reshuffle aimed to increase work efficiency. The fifth term government was established in September Its cabinet comprised one prime minister, nine deputy prime ministers, 15 senior ministers, 13 ministers attached to the prime minister, 27 ministers and hundreds of secretary of states and undersecretary of states. Yentieng said the ACU will open an asset declaration by Sokha.
The investigation was made after ACU experts concluded that recently leaked audio recordings of alleged telephone conversation between Sokha and mistresses are "authentic. The complaint said that audio recordings suggested that Sokha buy land, houses and a car for his mistresses with funds from unknown sources. On Monday, the National Assembly also asked Sokha to clarify about the audio clips in which he allegedly spoke with mistresses, discussing sex, pregnancy and paying for an apartment.
Sokha has remained silent on the sex scandal since a series of audio recordings between him and mistresses went viral on the Internet since early this month. Moreover, he has advised supporters not to respond to provocations. Myanmar is in the transition process for forming a new government in accordance with the result of general election held on Nov. Presidential election is set to take place on next Thursday with the Union Parliament designating three groups of presidential electoral college for nominating one candidate each for three vice presidents first and the one who wins the most number of votes, will take the presidency, while the remaining two be vice presidents in accordance with the constitution.
The three groups respectively represent elected House of Representatives Lower House , House of Nationalities Upper House and military-nominated non-elected representatives. So far, nominees from the three parliamentary groups for vice presidents are still not officially disclosed until next Thursday when the presidential election process starts. As the opposition National Leagud for democracy NLD , led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won in the election absolute majority of the parliamentary seats, it is fully qualified to form a new government independently under the constitution and has the right to nominate the president and two vice presidents.
Except the candidates for the three top government leader posts remain undisclosed, the NLD said it will reveal the list of the new government cabinet in days before the presidential run. The NLD-led new government vowed to cut the number of ministries leaving 23 only from the previous Merging some ministries to one for instance, the NLD said it will not reduce the number of ministries' employees but will make use of them to reinforce other ministries in need.
The party insisted that chief ministers of all 14 regions and states are to be assigned with elected NLD parliament representatives only. Of the posts of new government cabinet members, the NLD said it will take up 30 to 40 percent only and the rest will come from other parties and outside experts. Ceremonial handover of the duties of the head of state will be carried out at the parliament on March 30 after the new president and two vice presidents are produced out of presidential run.
Outgoing President U Thein Sein said he will officially transfer the state power to the new head of state at the Presidential Palace on the day after the new government is sworn in at the parliament. The first sessions of the two Houses had begun separately on Feb. The parliament also formed an advisory commission to the legislative body, led by previous speaker of the House of Representatives U Shwe Mann, to cooperate in handling legal affairs and special cases. A presidential election process for the second five-year term of civilian government began in Myanmar 's parliament Thursday as three parliamentary groups of presidential electoral college submitted their candidates.
The presidential election came four months after a general election was held on Nov. The three parliamentary groups of presidential electoral college represent the House of Representatives Lower House , House of Nationalities Upper House and non-elected military-assigned representatives. Candidate nomination process of the two Houses was carried out in the parliament building, chaired by respective new speakers U Win Myint and U Mann Win Khiang Than, while that of the military will take place at their own army headquarters separately.
As the first scholarship winning student of the Yangon Computer Department, he was sent to Britain for further study. He resigned as government employee in and joined the NLD, continuing writing under his father's pen name. Besides being previous speaker of the House of Nationalities, he also serviced as culture minister. The parliament set the three groups to nominate one each candidate in the final for vice president and through voting, the one, who wins the most number of votes, will take the presidency, while the remaining two be vice presidents.
Nominees for vice presidents by the three groups of presidential electoral college will continue to undergo scrutiny if they are qualified for the posts and the approval of the candidates will be announced in a few days and further submitted to the Union Parliament comprising two Houses, for presidential run. Voting for the presidency is expected on March 17 or 18 when the Union Parliament reconvenes.
The elected president and two vice presidents will be sworn-in at the parliament on March 30, while the handover of the duties of head of state is set to be carried out at the Presidential Palace as a follow-up to complete the process. Myanmar was ruled by successive military government for five decades and the first civilian government emerged in March with U Thein Sein becoming the first elected president after the military handed back the state power.
U Htin Kyaw won the vote against Dr. However, the parliament session's Thursday agenda did not deal with the particular portfolio assignment of these ministerial nominees, but proposed to form a constitution-related tribunal with nine persons to handle issues related to constitution if arise.
The formation of the nine-member constitutional tribunal will be adopted by the parliament next Monday if there is no objection until 4 p. Friday local time. The assignment of portfolios is expected to be announced later. Malaysian government said on Friday that it had removed former prime minister Mahathir Mohamed as advisor to Petronas, the state-owned oil company.
The cabinet agreed unanimously to terminate the appointment of Mahathir as advisor to Petronas, the prime minister's office said in a statement. Mahathir , Malaysia 's longest-serving prime minister for 22 years, has been at odds with Prime Minister Najib Razak, mainly over allegations that hundreds of millions of U. Mahathir joined hands with several opposition leaders and activists last week signing a declaration calling for Najib's removal. Najib has denied any wrongdoing. Prosecutors said the funds were legal donations from the Middle East. Prime Minister's office said the joint statement "aims to topple the democratically-elected government led by the prime minister, and is therefore against the law and the federal constitution.
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THE Constitution Drafting Commission CDC has temporarily skipped its review of a section in the charter draft on how parliamentary members will be qualified to hold office, and deal instead with the contentious issue closer to the March 29 deadline, CDC spokesman Amorn Wanichwiwatana said yesterday.
A discussion about how members of Parliament - both MPs and senators - would be elected or appointed was supposed to be reviewed early this week. But the CDC has delayed this because of differences in opinions expressed by concerned agencies, and the drafters have not yet figured out how to best deal with the issue, Amorn said. In their first draft, drafters stipulated that members of the House of Representatives would be elected via a single-ballot system, with the number of party-list MPs also determined by the single vote.
Senators were to be elected by 20 different groups from across society, with each group cross-electing candidates from another group to discourage collusion. However, that framework was not very popular and sparked fierce public controversy. Two of the five "rivers of power" - the National Legislative Assembly and the National Reform Steering Assembly - proposed that the new constitution bar party-list MPs because they tended to be financiers who would seek to profit from politics after investing in elections.
The two assemblies also suggested that senators should be appointed. Amorn said the CDC would soon go on another retreat to deliberate on the final draft ahead of the deadline at the end of this month in preparation for the referendum that is scheduled for near the end of July. In the meantime, the CDC has gone rather quiet about their task. Daily press briefings have been curtailed and the commission's public relations team has said spokespeople will only hold briefings on issues that have been settled and are not subject to change.
The NRSA's legal and justice reform body proposed the legislation aiming to give police more autonomy in personnel management and to prevent political interference. The vote count reported 48 abstentions. The police have faced political interference since after a law was passed allowing the prime minister to head police agencies including the Police Commission and conferring the authority to appoint the National Police Chief. The proposed reform will be revised in light of suggestions from NRSA members before the finished version is forwarded to the Cabinet for approval within the next seven days.
This would open more opportunities for private investors to invest in equitised SOEs in Viet Nam , he said. The draft decision aims to minimize the state ownership in SOEs. Currently, the State still holds a large amount of shares that will reduce the attractiveness to investors. It is attributed to the unchanged corporate governance such as management of road maintenance, waterways, seaports, and public interest.
Besides, the change in the regulations on SOEs has also led to the change in the content and structure of categories or types of SOEs. Contents of the draft decision in place of Decision 37 will have five new points. Accordingly, only first-tier companies can operate in the form of a holding company instead of two tiers as earlier to match new provisions in the Law on State Capital Management and Use. The draft narrows SOE classification criteria, divided into three groups: Wholly State-controlled fields, fields and branches with 65 per cent of State stake, and fields with 50 - 65 per cent of stake.
The draft decision requires the government to own per cent stakes in companies only in 14 sectors and industries, down from the current They include defence and security; production and distribution of industrial explosives and toxic chemicals; the national power grid; and nuclear power plants and hydropower plants of exceeding importance for socio-economic development or related to defence and security. The draft decision also includes management of rail infrastructure and transport; flight protection; maritime protection; and post and telecommunications; in addition to lottery; publishing; and preferential loans for socio-economic development.
The areas that go out of the list are management and protection of watershed forests, protective forests, special forests, and production and supply of toxic chemical substances. The draft has also eliminated some sectors where the State holds the stake such as rubber and coffee trees grown in localities disassociated with national defence and security tasks. It means that if the State does not keep controlling shares, private businesses will have more chances to be owner of businesses.
Also at the conference, relevant ministries and agencies agreed with suggestions from the Ministry of Planning and Investment to continue minimising the number of SOEs. However, representatives from other ministries and agencies wanted the draft decision to clearly define which sector needed to be equitised and which sector that should be per cent owned by the State. At the conference, the Deputy PM said any ministries or provinces wanted to have State controlling stakes in some sectors. They needed to submit their plan to the prime minister for consideration so as to ensure flexibility in equitisation and the disinvestment process.
There was no need to quickly minimise the controlling stake in businesses involved in national defence and security. It should be done gradually, Ninh said. According to the ministry of planning and Investment, between and , SOEs are expected to be restructured. Vietnam 's top legislator said the parliament is to "adjust" state leadership in a March meeting at an ongoing parliament standing committee session on Monday. In his opening remarks, National Assembly Chairman Nguyen Sinh Hung said the 11th meeting, the last gathering of the 13th legislature, will decide on the country's major matters in the next five years regarding socio-economic affairs, national defence and security, foreign relations and mid-term finance.
The session opening in capital Hanoi on Monday is expected to complete preparations for the 11th meeting of the 13th NA scheduled for this month. The top legislator expressed his hope that the NA Standing Committee and relevant agencies will make thorough preparations for the upcoming meeting to make it a success. On Monday's NA standing committee session, Vietnam 's Minister of Planning and Investment Bui Quang Vinh presented reports on socio-economic development outcomes in and during the period , a report on the socio-economic development plan for the next five years, and another on the mid-term public investment plan for State budget collection was close to trillion VND At the upcoming NA session, the final session of the 13th NA, the country's legislative body will spend 10 days and a half on considering and deciding personnel issues, lasting from March 31 to April 12 as many incumbent key leadership positions have not been included in the party's central committee.
At the second session of the 12th central committee of the CPV in early March, Vietnamese party chief Nguyen Phu Trong said the central committee reached high consensus that it is needed to soon replace and re-arrange key leadership positions in order to promptly implement the resolution of the 12th national party congress.
Following Vietnamese legal regulations, the working tenure of President and Prime Minister are coincident with NA tenure. A general election will be held in May to elect deputies for the 14th NA Pages Front Matter Pages Integrating Processes, Applications and Information. E-Business Standards. Ontology Engineering. Advanced Knowledge Creation Techniques.
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