The shelf life of a whole dry spice is roughly two years; of a ground spice roughly six months. Some flavor elements in spices are soluble in water; many are soluble in oil or fat.
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As a general rule, the flavors from a spice take time to infuse into the food so spices are added early in preparation. This contrasts to herbs which are usually added late in preparation. Shipments from Mexico and India, a major producer, were the most frequently contaminated.
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Because they tend to have strong flavors and are used in small quantities, spices tend to add few calories to food, even though many spices, especially those made from seeds, contain high portions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate by weight. However, when used in larger quantity, spices can also contribute a substantial amount of minerals and other micronutrients , including iron, magnesium, calcium, and many others, to the diet.
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Most herbs and spices have substantial antioxidant activity, owing primarily to phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids , which influence nutrition through many pathways, including affecting the absorption of other nutrients. One study found cumin and fresh ginger to be highest in antioxidant activity.
The International Organization for Standardization addresses spices and condiments , along with related food additives, as part of the International Classification for Standards The Indian Institute of Spices Research in Kozhikode , Kerala , is devoted exclusively to conducting research for ten spice crops: black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, garcinia, ginger, nutmeg, paprika, turmeric, and vanilla. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vegetable substance other than leaves primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
For the sensation of eating spicy-hot foods, see pungency. For other uses, see Spice disambiguation.
Spices at a central market in Agadir , Morocco. A group of Indian spices and herbs in bowls. An assortment of spices used in Indian cuisine. Spice market, Marakesh. Spices and herbs at a shop in Goa , India. Main article: Spice trade. Main article: List of culinary herbs and spices.
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Seeds , such as fennel , mustard , nutmeg , and black pepper Fruits , such as Cayenne pepper Arils , such as mace part of nutmeg plant fruit Barks , such as cinnamon and cassia Flower buds , such as cloves Stigmas , such as saffron Roots and rhizomes , such as turmeric , ginger and galingale Resins , such as asafoetida.
Main article: Spice mix. A spice shop in Taliparamba , India. Spices sold in Taliparamba , India. Food portal. The house had burned down around BC and this was the first evidence of cloves being used in the west before Roman times. Journal of Food Safety. Evolutionary Applications. Sidebotham May 7, Berenike and the Ancient Maritime Spice Route. Univ of California Press.
Bellwether Books. Pegasus Books. CRC Press. Retrieved May 9, In Katz ed. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Charles Scribner's Sons. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Food in Medieval Times. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Good Eats. Season 7. Episode Food Network.
Health Benefits of Fennel
Hammacka; Ann Westerman June Food Microbiology. Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United States were sampled during the fiscal years — The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0. The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, British Journal of Nutrition. Archived from the original on July 13, Retrieved December 20, Food additives". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved April 23, Culinary Australian Bangladeshi Indian Pakistani.
Chinese herbology Herbal tea Marination Spice rub. When stored in an airtight jar in a cool, dry place, fennel pollen will store for several months. You will want to leave some flowers behind to produce seeds for cooking, and the flowers will provide nectar for many beneficial insects.
In a 7-year study in the Crimea , eight species of beneficial wasps were observed gathering nectar from fennel. Hoverflies like fennel, too, and it is a preferred host plant for the larvae of black swallowtail butterflies, commonly known as parsleyworms. I would much rather see them on a towering fennel plant than on my petite little parsley!
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Fennel seeds have long been used to reduce intestinal gas, which is why many cooks add a few fennel seeds to the cooking water when cooking asparagus, cabbage, beans, and other gas-producing foods. When taken as a nutritional supplement , fennel capsules can reduce common symptoms of menopause. Or you might try fennel to lose weight. In a recent Korean study , overweight women reported wanting to eat less after drinking fennel tea before a big meal. To try it yourself, use fennel leaves, seeds or both to make an infused water to sip through the day.
For some gardeners, making friends with fennel requires moving beyond several widely believed myths. For example, the often-repeated spook story that fennel and dill will cross is false. In one study in which fennel and 15 other herbs were tested for their ability to suppress the germination and growth of lettuce, fennel was no more potent than lavender.
Fennel seed coats do contain substances that inhibit germination of other seeds, and it is possible that natural herbicides of the future could use highly concentrated fennel seed extracts as their active ingredient.