Machines (Metro Stories)

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All those staying in building which are in dilapidated state and falling on the way of Metro 3 we will provide them alternate accommodation. The main problem which Mumbaikars face every year during monsoon is that all modes of transport get paralysed when the city gets flooded.

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Many feared that if the flood-like situation occurs again, it will hamper the underground metro. Certainly not is the answer as all tunnels of Underground Metro 3 are water proof and MMRCL has taken a flood data of the last years, and after analysing it they had made their final plan and design. Speaking about the project Ashwini Bhide said, "This project will be joining 3 major employment avenues which are not connected with each other by local railway lines.

This project will certainly reduce the burden of road transport on western suburban. MMRCL is confident of completing the tunnelling work by and simultaneously they have also started the process of tendering of other work related to station building, signalling etc. The plan encompassed a total of kilometres 91 mi of track, of which 32 kilometres 20 mi was proposed to be underground.

According to its earlier plans, a km metro line from Colaba to Bandra was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres 6. The Exclusive: Mumbai officials promise underground Metro will be flood-proof Mumbai government's dream to connect the 3 employment hubs- Colaba, Bandra and SEEPZ is about to come true in 2 years.

Friday, October 26, 2018

An employee climbs an excavation site operated by MMRC. Source: Reuters. Excavation being done with highly mechanised TBMs tunnel boring machines Entire tunneling is expected to be complete by For sports news , updates, live scores and cricket fixtures , log on to indiatoday.

Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for Sports news, scores and updates. Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. As of the system had an average daily ridership of 6. Peak daily ridership of 9. Free wi-fi has been available on all lines of the Moscow Metro since 1 December The network was launched by MaximaTelecom.

Of the metro's stations, 88 are deep underground, are shallow, 12 are surface-level and 5 are elevated. The deep stations comprise 55 triple-vaulted pylon stations, 19 triple-vaulted column stations, and one single-vault station. The shallow stations comprise 79 spanned column stations a large portion of them following the "centipede" design , 33 single-vaulted stations Kharkov technology , and three single-spanned stations. In addition, there are 12 ground-level stations, four elevated stations, and one station Vorobyovy Gory on a bridge.

Two stations have three tracks, and one has double halls. Seven of the stations have side platforms only one of which is subterranean. In addition, there were two temporary stations within rail yards. One station is reserved for future service Delovoy Tsentr for the Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya line.

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The stations being constructed under Stalin's regime , in the style of socialist classicism , were meant as underground "palaces of the people". Stations such as Komsomolskaya , Kiyevskaya or Mayakovskaya and others built after in the second phase of the evolution of the network are tourist landmarks, their photogenic architecture, large chandeliers and detailed decoration unusual for an urban transport system. Each line is identified by a name, an alphanumeric index usually consisting of just a number and a colour.

The upcoming station is announced by a male voice on inbound trains to the city center on the Circle line , the clockwise trains and by a female voice on outbound trains counter-clockwise trains on the Circle line. The metro has a connection to the Moscow Monorail , a 4. Prior to the official opening, the monorail had operated in "excursion mode" since The only exceptions are on the Filyovskaya Line : Vystavochnaya , Mezhdunarodnaya , Studencheskaya , Kutuzovskaya , Fili , Bagrationovskaya , Filyovsky Park and Pionerskaya , which only allows six-car trains note that this list includes all ground-level stations on the line, except Kuntsevskaya , which allows normal length trains.

Trains on the Zamoskvoretskaya, Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya, Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya, Kalininskaya, Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya and Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya lines have eight cars, on the Sokolnicheskaya line seven cars and on the Koltsevaya and Kakhovskaya lines six cars. The Filyovskaya and Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya lines had six- and seven-car trains as well, but now use four- and five-car trains of another type. The V-type trains were formerly from Berlin U-Bahn C-class trains from to , until its complete demise in They were transported from the Berlin U-Bahn during the Soviet occupation.

A-type and B-type trains were custom-made since the opening. On the Moscow Central Circle , Lastochka trains are used, consisting of five cars. Intamin P30 train operates on the Monorail line. It carried out preliminary studies, and by had developed a project for the first route from Sokolniki to the city centre. At the same time, an offer was made to the German company Siemens Bauunion to submit its own project for the same route.

The first lines were built using the Moscow general plan designed by Lazar Kaganovich , along with his project managers notably Ivan M. Kuznetsov and, later, Isaac Y. Segal in the ss, and the Metro was named after him until Metropoliten im. Partly because of this connection, the design of the Gants Hill tube station in London, which was completed much later, is reminiscent of a Moscow Metro station. Soviet workers did the labor and the art work, but the main engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground.

The Britons called for tunneling instead of the " cut-and-cover " technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, the routes and the design of the rolling stock. The first line was opened to the public on 15 May at am.

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The day was celebrated as a technological and ideological victory for socialism and, by extension, Stalinism. An estimated , people rode the Metro at its debut, and its design was greeted with pride; street celebrations included parades, plays and concerts. The Bolshoi Theatre presented a choral performance by 2, Metro workers; 55, colored posters lauding the Metro as the busiest and fastest in the world and 25, copies of "Songs of the Joyous Metro Conquerors" were distributed.

The second stage was completed before the war. In March , the Arbatskaya branch was split and extended to the Kurskaya station now the dark-blue Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line. Here the architecture was based on that of the most popular stations in existence Krasniye Vorota, Okhotnyi Ryad and Kropotkinskaya ; while following the popular art-deco style, it was merged with socialist themes. The first deep-level column station Mayakovskaya was built at the same time. Building work on the third stage was delayed but not interrupted during World War II , and two Metro sections were put into service; Teatralnaya — Avtozavodskaya three stations, crossing the Moskva River through a deep tunnel and Kurskaya — Partizanskaya four stations were inaugurated in and respectively.

War motifs replaced socialist visions in the architectural design of these stations.

During the Siege of Moscow in the fall and winter of , Metro stations were used as air-raid shelters; the Council of Ministers moved its offices to the Mayakovskaya platforms, where Stalin made public speeches on several occasions. The Chistiye Prudy station was also walled off, and the headquarters of the Air Defence established there. After the war ended in , construction began on the fourth stage of the Metro, which included the Koltsevaya Line , a deep part of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line from Ploshchad Revolyutsii to Kievskaya and a surface extension to Pervomaiskaya during the early s.

The decoration and design characteristic of the Moscow Metro is considered to have reached its zenith in these stations. The Koltsevaya Line was first planned as a line running under the Garden Ring , a wide avenue encircling the borders of Moscow's city centre. The first part of the line — from Park Kultury to Kurskaya — follows this avenue. Plans were later changed and the northern part of the ring line runs 1—1. The next part of the Koltsevaya Line opened in Kurskaya— Belorusskaya , and in the ring line was completed.

The beginning of the Cold War led to the construction of a deep section of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line. The stations on this line were planned as shelters in the event of nuclear war. After finishing the line in the upper tracks between Ploshchad Revolyutsii and Kiyevskaya were closed, and later reopened in as a part of the Filyovskaya Line.

In the further development of the Metro the term "stages" was not used any more, although sometimes the stations opened in — are referred to as the "fifth stage". Other stations, too, were supplied with tight gates and life-sustenance systems to function as nuclear shelters. During the late s the architectural extravagance of new Metro stations was toned down, and decorations at some stations such as VDNKh and Alexeyevskaya were simplified by comparison with the original plans.

This was done on the orders of Nikita Khrushchev , who favoured more spartan decoration. A typical layout which quickly became known as Sorokonozhka —"centipede", from early designs with 40 concrete columns in two rows was developed for all new stations and the stations were built to look almost identical, differing from each other only in colours of the marble and ceramic tiles. Most stations were built with simpler, less-costly technology; this was not always appropriate, and resulted in utilitarian design. For example, walls with cheap ceramic tiles were susceptible to train vibration and some tiles eventually fell off.

It was not always possible to replace the missing tiles with the ones of the same color, which eventually led to variegated parts of the walls. Not until the mids was the architectural extravagance restored and original designs again popular. However, the newer design of "centipede" stations with 26 columns, more widely spaced continued to dominate. The metro's artists and architects worked to design a structure that embodied svet radiance or brilliance and svetloe budushchee a radiant future.

His team experimented with different materials most often cast bronze, aluminum, sheet brass, steel, and milk glass and methods to optimize the technology. The Kaluzhskaya Station was designed by the architect [Leonid] Poliakov. Poliakov's decision to base his design on a reinterpretation of Russian classical architecture clearly influenced the concept of the lamps, some of which I planned in collaboration with the architect himself.

The shape of the lamps was a torch — the torch of victory, as Poliakov put it The artistic quality and stylistic unity of all the lamps throughout the station's interior made them perhaps the most successful element of the architectural composition. All were made of cast aluminum decorated in a black and gold anodized coating, a technique which the Metrostroi factory had only just mastered.

Ryzhkov and A. Their subject matter dealt with images of war and victory The overall effect was one of ceremony In the platform halls the blue ceramic bodies of the chandeliers played a more modest role, but still emphasised the overall expressiveness of the lamp. The work of Abram Damsky further publicized these ideas hoping people would associate the party with svetloe budushchee. Stalin's first five-year plan — facilitated rapid industrialization to build a socialist motherland. The plan was ambitious, seeking to reorient an agrarian society towards industrialism. It was Stalin's fanatical energy, large-scale planning, and smart resource distribution that kept up the incredible pace of industrialization.

The first five-year plan was instrumental in the completion of the Moscow Metro; without industrialization, the Soviet Union would not have had the raw materials necessary for the project. For example, steel was a main component of many subway stations. Before industrialization, it would have been impossible for the Soviet Union to produce enough steel to incorporate it into the metro's design; in addition, a steel shortage would have limited the size of the subway system and its technological advancement.

The Moscow Metro furthered the construction of a socialist Soviet Union because the project accorded with Stalin's second five-year plan. The Second Plan focused on urbanization and the development of social services. The Moscow Metro was necessary to cope with the influx of peasants who migrated to the city during the s; Moscow's population had grown from 2. The Metro also bolstered Moscow's shaky infrastructure and its communal services, which hitherto were nearly nonexistent.

The Communist Party had the power to mobilize; because the party was a single source of control, it could focus its resources and inspire its people. The country also mobilized in order to complete the Moscow Metro with unprecedented speed. One of the main motivation factors of the mobilization was to overtake the West and prove that a socialist metro could surpass capitalist designs. It was especially important to the Soviet Union that socialism succeed industrially, technologically, and artistically in the s, since capitalism was at a low ebb during the Great Depression.

The person in charge of Metro mobilization was Lazar Kaganovich.

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A prominent Party member, he assumed control of the project as chief overseer. Kaganovich was nicknamed the "Iron Commissar"; he shared Stalin's fanatical energy, dramatic oratory flare, and ability to keep workers building quickly with threats and punishment. Without Kaganovich's managerial ability, the Moscow Metro might have met the same fate as the Palace of the Soviets : failure. This was a comprehensive mobilization; the project drew resources and workers from the entire Soviet Union.

In his article, archeologist Mike O'Mahoney describes the scope of the Metro mobilization:. A specialist workforce had been drawn from many different regions, including miners from the Ukrainian and Siberian coalfields and construction workers from the iron and steel mills of Magnitogorsk, the Dniepr hydroelectric power station, and the Turkestan-Siberian railway Skilled engineers were scarce, and unskilled workers were instrumental to the realization of the metro.

The Metrostroi the organization responsible for the Metro's construction conducted massive recruitment campaigns. It printed 15, copies of Udarnik metrostroia Metrostroi Shock Worker , its daily newspaper and other newsletters some in different languages to attract unskilled laborers. Kaganovich was closely involved in the recruitment campaign, targeting the Komsomol generation because of its strength and youth.

When the Metro opened in it immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system. More than that, it was a Stalinist device to awe and control the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art. It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilization as they rode.

The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and physical prowess on the powerful new " Homo Sovieticus " Soviet man.

The Metro was iconic also because it showcased Socialist Realism in public art. Socialist Realism was in fact a method, not a style. Any plan which did not incorporate all three areas cohesively was rejected. Without this cohesion, the Metro would not reflect Socialist Realism.

If the Metro did not utilize Socialist Realism, it would fail to illustrate Stalinist values and transform Soviet citizens into socialists. Anything less than Socialist Realism's grand artistic complexity would fail to inspire a long-lasting, nationalistic attachment to Stalin's new society. The proposal of reconstruction for existing Little Ring of the Moscow Railway into a metropolitan railway with frequent passenger service was unveiled in New tracks and stations were built in and the line was opened to passengers in September It increased the overall strength of the metro network and relieved congestion on Koltsevaya Line.

Line 14 is operated by the Moscow Metro. Acting operation is performed by the subcontractor, Russian Railways. Unlike direct transfer between conventional metro lines, all transfer stations with other metro lines require passengers to exit the ticket gate and enter the opposite station, with transportation hubs built on selected sites for more convenient out-of-station transfer. Transferring between Line 14 and the rest of the metro lines is free if the journey before transfer is done within 90 minutes. There is no accurate information about the author of the logo, so it is often attributed to the architects of the first stations — Samuil Kravets, Ivan Taranov and Nadezhda Bykova.

It is noteworthy, however, that even at the opening in , the M letter on the logo had no definite shape.

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Today, with at least ten different variations of the shape in use, Moscow Metro still does not have clear brand or logo guidelines. An attempt was made in October to launch a nationwide brand image competition, only to be closed several hours after its announcement. A similar contest, held independently later that year by the design crowdsourcing company DesignContest, yielded better results, though none were officially accepted by the Metro officials.

The fare has been steadily rising since , hastened by inflation taking into account the revaluation of the ruble by a factor of 1, Effective February , one ride costs 55 rubles approx. Discounts up to 33 percent are available when buying a multiple-trip ticket starting with twenty-trip cards , and children under age seven can travel free with their parents.

Tickets are available for a fixed number of trips, regardless of distance traveled or number of transfers. Monthly and yearly passes are also available. Fare enforcement takes place at the points of entry. Once a passenger has entered the Metro system, there are no further ticket checks — one can ride to any number of stations and make transfers within the system freely. Transfers to other public-transport systems such as bus, tram, trolleybus are not covered by the ticket. Transfer to monorail is free within 90 minutes. Before , turnstiles accepted coins; however, with the start of hyperinflation plastic tokens of various design were used.

Disposable magnetic stripe cards were introduced in on a trial basis, and used as unlimited monthly tickets between and The sale of tokens ended on 1 January , and they stopped being accepted in February ; from that time, magnetic cards were used as tickets with a fixed number of trips. On 1 September , the Moscow Metro became the first metro system in Europe to fully implement contactless smart cards , known as Transport Cards.

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The card has an unlimited number of trips and may be programmed for 30, 90 or days. Transport Cards impose a delay for each consecutive use; i. Ultralight tickets are available for a fixed number of trips in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and trip denominations valid for 5 or 90 days from the day of purchase and as a monthly ticket, only valid for a selected calendar month and limited to 70 trips. The sale of magnetic cards stopped 16 January and magnetic cards stopped being accepted in late , making the Moscow metro the world's first major public-transport system to run exclusively on a contactless automatic fare-collection system.

In August , the city government launched the Muscovite's Social Card program. Social Cards are free smart cards issued for the elderly and other groups of citizens officially registered as residents of Moscow or the Moscow region ; they offer discounts in shops and pharmacies, and double as credit cards issued by the Bank of Moscow.

Social Cards can be used for unlimited free access to the city's public-transport system, including the Moscow Metro; while they do not feature the time delay, they include a photograph and are non-transferable. Since , several banks have issued credit cards which double as Ultralight cards and are accepted at turnstiles. The fare is passed to the bank and the payment is withdrawn from the owner's bank account at the end of the calendar month, using a discount rate based on the number of trips that month for up to 70 trips, the cost of each trip is prorated from current Ultralight rates; each additional trip costs On 2 April Moscow Transport Department introduced a smart card based transport electronic wallet called Troika.

There are also three more smart cards has been launched - Ediniy card, a universal card for all city-owned public transport operated by Mosgortrans and Moscow Metro, 90 minutes card, an unlimited "minute" card and TAT card for surface public transport operated by Mosgortrans. In , as a way to promote both the " Olympic Games in Sochi and active lifestyles , Moscow Metro installed a vending machine that gives commuters a free ticket in exchange for doing 30 squats. From the first quarter of ticket windows at stations started to accept bank cards for fare payment.

Passengers were also able to start using contactless payment systems, such as PayPass technology on MasterCard and Maestro Visa PayWave on Visa cards, at fare gates to enter the system. Customers wishing to use this method of payment must exchange their existing SIM card for one that supports Near Field Communication technology. Applicable fares are the same as on the Troika card.

Customers are able to use Mobile Ticket on Moscow's surface transport.

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Note: The real discount is higher because validity period is doubled 90 days is enough to pass even twice only in the week days. There is no difference between types of transport for fare collection, the difference apply for carrier. Note: in main fare zone is the territory: in some area 2 fare systems have track overlap, these areas are not written above.

NOT included routes 17 , greater than with exceptions , , , , , , , , , , and described below. On route number are valid fixed rate tickets only. If you don't have it, the fare on this route is 50 rubles. Mosgortrans buses , , , , , de facto are in the zone, routes outside the Moscow Ring Road other than it are not even they have the same route. There is more than one route; ,,,,, etc. Since the turn of the 21st century several projects have been completed, and more are underway.

Its continuation, an elevated Butovskaya Line , was inaugurated in Vorobyovy Gory station, which initially opened in and was forced to close in after the concrete used to build the bridge was found to be defective, was rebuilt and reopened after many years in Another recent project included building a branch off the Filyovskaya Line to the Moscow International Business Center. This included Vystavochnaya opened in and Mezhdunarodnaya opened in The Strogino—Mitino extension began with Park Pobedy in Its first stations an expanded Kuntsevskaya and Strogino opened in January , and Slavyansky Bulvar followed in September.

Myakinino , Volokolamskaya and Mitino opened in December Myakinino station was built by a state-private financial partnership, unique in Moscow Metro history. After many years of construction, the long-awaited Lyublinskaya Line extension was inaugurated with Trubnaya in August and Sretensky Bulvar in December of that year.

In June , it was extended northwards with the Dostoyevskaya and Maryina Roscha stations. In December , the Lyublinskaya Line was expanded southwards by three stations and connected to the Zamoskvoretskaya Line , with the Alma-Atinskaya station opening on the latter in December In works began on the Third Interchange Contour that is set to take the pressure off the Koltsevaya Line. In the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line was extended after several delays to the south-eastern districts of Moscow outside the Ring Road with the opening of Zhulebino and Lermontovsky Prospekt stations.

Originally scheduled for , a new segment of the Kalininskaya Line between Park Pobedy and Delovoy Tsentr separate from the main part was opened in January , while the underground extension of Butovskaya Line northwards to offer a transfer to the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line was completed in February. Spartak , a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line that remained unfinished for forty years, was finally opened in August The first stage of the southern extension of the Sokolnicheskaya Line , the Troparyovo station, opened in December There were 15 tunnel boring machines working in Moscow as of April with 24 planned by the end of In addition to major metro expansion the Moscow Government and Russian Railways plans to upgrade more commuter railways to a metro-style service, similar to the MCC.

New tracks and stations are planned to be built in order to achieve this. The Moscow Metro has a set of expansion plans which are due to be achieved by Major projects include:. It has been alleged that a second and deeper metro system code-named "D-6", [46] designed for emergency evacuation of key city personnel in case of nuclear attack during the Cold War , exists under military jurisdiction.

It is speculated that these would allow for the evacuation of a small number of randomly chosen civilians, in addition to most of the elite military personnel. A suspected junction between the secret system and the regular Metro is supposedly behind the Sportivnaya station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line. admin